McIntyre Farm, Lislea

McIntyre Farm, Lislea
Farm vacant in 1998

About Lawrence McIntyre and Mary Ginty

About Lawrence McIntyre and Mary Ginty

Lawrence McIntyre was baptized (and possibly born) on August 12, 1854 in Lislea, Kilmacteige Parish, County Sligo, Ireland. His parents are listed as Michael McIntyre and Mary McIntyre on his baptismal record. No other information about his parents is known with the exception of a possible nephew or cousin, Patrick McIntyre, who came to the U.S in 1863.

Lawrence's wife, Mary Ginty, was born September 3, 1850 in Carrowbeg, Killasser, County Mayo, Ireland. Her parents are John Ginty and Margaret Convey(Conway). In addition to their daughter Mary, they had three other children: Margaret (Bridget), Catherine and Patrick.

Lawrence and Mary were married in Killasser on March 1, 1877 and resided in Lislea where they raised their family. They had six known children, all born in Ireland. Thomas Joseph (1878-1939); Catherine (1879-c1915); Mary (1881-1927); Bridget (1881-c1945); Lawrence J. (1890-1943); and John (c1892-?). Lawrence and Mary died in Ireland in the early 1930s.

The descendents of Patrick McIntyre (c1831-1901), mentioned above, and his wife Bridget Stevens (c1833-1908) are also represented on this McIntyre-Ginty Blog. Patrick's farm in Lislea, County Sligo, was to the right of the house in the photo at the top of this page. A separate blog has also been created for Patrick and Bridget and may be viewed at www.mcintyrestevens.blogspot.com

Saturday, August 30, 2014

Lislea, County Sligo, in 1825

The Tithe Applotment Books record the results of a unique land survey taken to determine the amount of tax payable by landholders to the Church of Ireland. This data set represents a virtual census for pre-Famine Ireland. 

The image below is from a microfilm of the original hand written book viewed at the Montreal Public Library in 1998. The front page from the section for Kilmacteige Parish is dated November 1, 1825. Note there are three McIntyres on the list for Leslea (Lislea). 
  • Patrick McEntire occupied 14 Irish acres and the land was taxed at 14 shillings
  • James McIntire occupied 1 Irish acre, 2 perches and the land was taxed at 1 shilling, 6 pence
  • John McEntire occupied 11 Irish acres, 3 rods and the land was taxed at 11 shillings
The note to the right of all the land in Lislea reads:

"Eleven Pounds seven shillings and nine pence the sum applotted on two hundred and eight acres and three perches in the Townland of Lislea as annexed."

From this document, it appears there were 26 heads of household/land occupiers living in Lislea in 1825. They are listed on lines 302 - 327 below. If you double click on the image it will enlarge.

Michael McIntyre (c1805-1891) would have been approximately 20 years old in 1825 and not very likely to be the occupier of a parcel of land. Could one of these individuals, Patrick, James or John, be the father of Michael?  



Irish Mile vs Statute Mile
  1. An Irish acre is a unit of area historically used in Ireland, Yorkshire, and regions bordering the Solway Firth. One Irish acre is equal to about .66 hectares (1.6 acres) (196⁄121) acre, 6600 square meters, or 70,560 square feet. Source: Wikipedia, accessed August 30, 2014.
  2. Table of Constants
    1 Statute Mile = 1760 Yards
    1 Irish Mile = 2240 Yards
    11 Irish Miles = 14 Statute Miles
    1 Statute Acre = 4840 SQ. Yards
    1 Irish Acre = 7840 SQ. Yards
    121 Irish Acres = 196 Statute Acres
Source: Ordinance Survey Ireland, http://www.osi.ie/Education/Secondary-Schools/Teacher-Resources/Conversions-(1).aspx, accessed August 30, 2014


British Pound, Shilling vs American Dollar

In 1825, one British pound was equivalent to 93 British pounds in 2013. Source: http://safalra.com/other/historical-uk-inflation-price-conversion/

There were 20 shillings to a pound, so one 1825 shilling would be worth 93/20 or $4.65 today. As an example in the above, Patrick paid 14 shillings or the equivalent of 14x4.65 = $65.10 in taxes for his 14 Irish acres.



Information on the Tithe Applotment

Background
The money so raised was for the upkeep of the Church of Ireland, the established church until 1869. The word tithe comes from the Latin for a tenth part, and refers to the custom of paying a tenth of one's earnings to the church. Originally this offering was in kind, but as money increasingly became the determinant of social and economic dealings, the tithe came to be paid similarly. Following the Composition Act of 1823, which decreed that tithes be paid in money, a valuation survey was carried out of each civil parish in Ireland to determine how much each landholder should pay. Over the next fifteen years this survey listed all landholders in a parish.
Assessing the Tithe
The survey was conducted by those who stood to gain from tithes, namely personnel of the Church of Ireland, usually members of the select vestry or apploters appointed by them 'to regulate and sub-divide'. The applotment enumerated each landholder in a parish, with details such as name of townland, size of holding, land-quality and types of crops. The amount of tithe payable by each landholder was based on all of these factors and calculated by a formula using the average price of wheat and oats from 1816-23. Most parishes had at least one tithe survey during from 1820-38 while some had two. Some parts of the country were exempt from paying tithe, among them glebe lands (land occupied by established clergymen), granges (land which in pre-Reformation times had belonged to a monastery) and all towns.
Opposition to Tithes
All this was eminently logical and scientific except for one rather serious snag; the tithe was to be paid by everyone, not just members of the Church of Ireland. Therefore, it was deeply unpopular with Catholics and Presbyterians who had their own clergy and who resented having to support a rival denomination whose members enjoyed more social and economic privileges than they. Furthermore, Catholics and Presbyterians between them outnumbered the established church, the latter being the preserve of those with social and political power. Not surprisingly there were instances of violent resistance, and numerous outbreaks of agrarian unrest in the 1830s were dubbed the 'tithe war'.
The End of Tithes
Tithes were payable directly to the Protestant minister, but collection was often difficult as people held out against the indignity and the financial burden. It should be remembered that all landholders had to pay tithe, and the majority of these were impoverished tenants already faced with heavy rents payable to their landlord. From 1838 on, the tithe was amalgamated with the land-rent and collected by landlords, who then passed on the church's share. This had the double effect of removing the trouble of collection from ministers and also of making payment more likely, given that non-payment of dues to the landlord could lead to eviction. Resentment against tithes festered as one of the ills associated with Ireland's ramshackle landlord system until the disestablishment of the Church of Ireland in 1869. Thereafter this denomination had to raise its own finance in the manner of other churches.
Exceptions
In total the Tithe Applotment Books comprise some 2,000 hand-written volumes of varying degrees of legibility. Even allowing for the exemption of town-dwellers and landless labourers from the survey, it still constitutes the nearest to a census of pre-Famine Ireland that we have - especially in light of the absence of formal census data from this period. As mentioned above, however, it is not comprehensive and some parts of the country were not surveyed. It should not be assumed that these 'exceptions' from the tithe survey were due to parishes being overlooked since there are usually explanations as to why they were tithe-free. In some cases there are no tithe books because a certain parish did not exist, or was part of another parish, at the time of the survey. There were also some parishes outside parochial jurisdiction, such as the above-mentioned granges, while glebe lands and all towns were also exempt. Details of exceptions are provided below. (1)

Source: The Tithe Applotment Books of Ireland, 1823-1838: www.genealogy.com accessed August 29, 2014.

Note: I have copied this blog to the www.mcintyrestevens.blogspot.com site as either Patrick, James or John should be Edward McIntyre's father as well.

Sunday, May 19, 2013

Patrick McIntyre Inquiry, 1863

Lawrence McIntyre's father was Michael McIntyre.  It is believed one of Michael's nephew or cousin was Patrick McIntyre, the occupier of the property next to Michael's as listed in the Griffith's Valuation c 1858.

Patrick and his family arrived in New York City on April 18, 1863.  The following "Information Wanted" ad appeared in the New York newspaper the Irish-American on November 21, 1863.

"Of Mary McIntyre, a native of the Parish of Kilmactige, County Sligo, who married Hugh McGlauhin, of County Meath, Ireland. Also of her sister Bridget, who married Samuel Smith, an American by birth.  When last hear from, they resided in the State of New York.  Any information of them will be thankfully received by their brother, Patrick McIntyre, who lately arrived, by writing to him in care of Patrick Foy, 81 Baxter Street, New York."

Questions:
  • Could Mary McIntyre McGlauhin and Bridget McIntyre Smith be sisters or cousins of Michael too?
  • Who is Patrick Foy?
  • Who is Hugh McGlauhin?
  • Who is Samuel Smith?
  • Who else lived at 81 Baxter Street, NY
  • Did Patrick ever locate Bridget and Mary?

Source: DeGrazia, Laura Murphy, compiler.  Irish Relative and Friends: From "Information Wanted" Ads in the Irish-American, 1850-1871. Baltimore, Maryland: Genealogy Publishing Co., 2001.  Page 186.

Patrick McIntyre's 1863 Passenger List

On April 18, 1863, Patrick McIntyre (probable brother of Michael McIntyre) along with his wife Bridget and their five children, Edward, Barty, Mary, Dominick and Cath, arrived in New York Harbor on the SS Orient leaving out of Liverpool, England.




Source: Ancestry.com. New York, Passenger Lists, 1820-1957 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2010. Year: 1863; Arrival: New York, New York; Microfilm Serial: M237; Microfilm Roll: 227; Line: 29; List Number: 305. National Archives, Washington, DC. Patrick McIntyre entry, accessed: May 19, 2013.

Friday, February 8, 2013

John Ginty Farmland in Carrowbeg

While in Ireland in July 2011, I visited Carrowbeg, County Mayo and took a 360 degree video of the land in front of the property where John Ginty lived and specifically the house where Sally Ruane Gilger grew up.  In the video I say the open pasture land belonged to John Ginty, I'm not sure that is true.  But, the spot I took the video from is in front of the Ginty/Ruane (now Rowley) house Carrowbeg.

For some still photos of the Ginty/Ruane/Rowley house and property, click here.



Source: Elaine McIntyre Beaudoin, video, July 2011.

Thursday, March 15, 2012

Patrick McIntyre Farm in Lislea, County Sligo

Patrick McIntyre, believed nephew of Michael McIntyre, is listed in the Griffith's Valuation living on a parcel of land which is adjacent to the land that Michael McIntyre lived on and eventually owned.  In an earlier post, it is noted that Patrick McIntyre left the property sometime around 1863.

This video was taken in the summer of 2011 of the property Patrick McIntyre occupied prior to 1863 in Lislea.

Friday, January 6, 2012

McEntire occupiers in Lislea c1858 & 1863

Richard Griffith undertook the Primary Valuation of Ireland in the mid-1800s.  This valuation, which is commonly referred to as Griffith's Valuation, is a unified, country-wide valuation of land and property taken as a result of the Tenement Valuation Act of 1846.  For each county, a "snapshot" was published at a specific point in time between 1848 and 1864, with the date for each county dependent upon the year in which that county was surveyed. (1)

The County Sligo survey was completed on July 7, 1858. (2)  The following is a reproduction of the page which shows the Townland of Lislea, Barony of Leyny, Civil Parish of Kilmacteige, Poor Law Union (Registrar's District (RD)) of Tobercurry, Electoral Division (ED) of Aclare.  Note the occupiers of parcels 7 & 8 are Michael and Patrick McEntire, respectively.

Griffith's Valuation, 1858 -- Click on image to enlarge


Once a tenement's valuation was set, provision was made for an annual revision of the assessment according to Section XXX of the 1846 Act. To carry out the annual revision of a tenement: "... that within Ten Days after the First day of February in each Year after any such Valuation shall be completed and in operation every Collector of Poor Rates within each Poor Law Union ... shall make out and lay before the Board of Guardians ... a list of all the Tenements or Hereditaments* situate within every Townland in the said Union which shall require Revision... ." (3)

The tax collector was expected to include on the list the change of an occupier's name, for example, because of death, migration, emigration, or a change of rate-payer, for example, from father to son or widow to son.  The lessor from whom a holding was rented required a name change when the holding was sold or leased to a new landlord.  When part of a farm was consolidated with another farm, the collector was expected to inform the Board of Guardians; similarly, when a farm was divided, he recorded a need for change on the list. (4)

Below, the Valuation Revision List (5) for Lislea for the years 1859-1863 shows the name Michael McEntire (father of Lawrence McIntyre) with reference #7 and Patrick McEntire with reference #8.  These Revision Lists were later called Cancellation Books, as they were "cancelled" once the next valuation book was started.

The references 7 & 8 as listed in the Valuation Revision list are the same two pieces of property listed in the above original 1858 printed Griffith's Valuation.

Note on the following Valuation Revision sheet Patrick McEntire's entry has a red line through it.  At the end of the line it reads "Fee down, 63."  The 63 refers to 1863 the year the line was drawn through the entry, i.e., Patrick was no longer the occupier.  "Fee down" appears to mean the parcel of land in question does not have an individual who is entitled to inherit the lease. The leases at this time were often written to include "three lives" and were therefore good until the youngest of the three named men gave up the lease and/or died.  

Click on image to enlarge
The fact that Patrick's name is struck on this Valuation Sheet, further supports additional information we have that Patrick and his family emigrated from Ireland to the US in 1863.

The immediate lessor at this time was William Ormsby Gore. In the next Revision list it shows that Arthur O'Hara, Michael O'Hara, Denis O'Hara and John Farrell were the occupiers of parcel #8 and were leasing from William Orsmby Gore.  Note that these four individuals are also noted in parcels 5 & 6 in the above Valuation Revision List as well as Griffith's Valuation of 1858.

The question that remains, were Michael McEntire and Patrick McEntire brothers or cousins?

*Any property that can be inherited.

Sources:
(1) Elizabeth Kelley Kerstens, "Tracking Irish generations in land valuation records," NGS News Magazine, July/August/September, 2005, pg. 55.
(2) James R. Reilly, Richard Griffith and His Valuation of Ireland, Baltimore: Clearfield, 2000, Appendix No. 8, page 78.
(3) Ibid., pg. 43.
(4) Ibid., pg. 43.
(5) Valuation List no. 3, County Sligo, ED Aclare, RD Tobercurry, page 37, 1859-1863, Valuation Office, Dublin, Ireland, viewed and copied July 18, 2011.

Thursday, January 5, 2012

Bridget McIntyre, Birth Registration 1881

Bridget McIntyre, daughter of Larry McIntyre and Mary Ginty, was born on August 1, 1881.  She was the twin sister of Mary McIntyre.  She was born in Lislea on the family farm.


Source: Ireland, Civil Registration Office